Evaluation of Optimal Conditions, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum to Copper Joints Welded by FSW

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Bone and Joint Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, P. O. Box: 71348-14336


The joining of dissimilar metals by Friction stir welding (FSW) is one of the newest metal joining processes. In this research, the tool was made from H13 hot working steel, which has a concave shoulder with a 3-degree inclined angle. The welding operation performed using a milling machine. The non-homogeneous workpieces joining of the Al alloy (5083) and a sheet of annealed copper (ASTM B36) with a thickness of 2 mm was investigated by the FSW method.  The joining process was carried out at three tool transverse speeds of 25, 35, and 45 mm per minute and three rotational velocities of 1000, 1300, and 1600 rpm. Microstructural changes of the welded samples were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy used to distinguish the type of phases. While its mechanical properties analyze according to different parameters used in the experiments. Also, the welded parts were subjected to microhardness and tensile tests. It found that the welding sample with a tool rotational speed of 1,300 rpm and a forward speed of 35 mm/min has the best mechanical properties, with a tensile strength of 82% and a yield strength of 80% of aluminum base metal. While welded components with a forward speed of 25 mm/min have tunnel defects and brittle phases of AlCu and Al2Cu formed in the stir region so that with the increase of rotational speed and forward speeds, the percentage of these brittle phases increases.