Dynamic Modeling of a Robot Manipulator for Opening the Tap Hole of an Electric Arc Furnace

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran


The electric arc furnace (EAF) is used to produce high quality steel from steel scraps. The EAF uses plasma arc to generate heat for melting scarp or direct reduced iron (DRI). The liquid metal should be drained from the tap hole. Manual tapping operation of the EAF in the hot environment around the furnace is a potentially dangerous and time consuming task for the workers. Therefore, it is essential to open the tap hole with Automated/robotic oxygen lancing. This study was aimed to design a robot manipulator with five degrees of freedom and revolute joints for opening the tap hole of an electrical arc furnace. The geometrical model of the robot was designed in Solid works software according to real work place and its expected path and obstacles. Direct and reverse kinematic equations were obtained using link parameters (Denawit–Hartenberg) and link transforms. The Newton-Euler approach was employed to derive the dynamic equations and the resultant joint torques.